General Law is the set of principles and regulations established by some authority which is applicable to its people whether in the form of Legislation or enforced by judicial decision. In other words a law that is unrestricted as to time is applicable throughout the entire territory subject to the power of the legislature that enacted it and applies to all citizen in the same class. It can be classified in three categories (1) Local Law, (2) Public Law and (3) Special Law.
Local Law: A law that is limited in application to a particular district within a territory. A law that confined within territorial limits other than that of the whole state, or applies to any political sub division, or sub divisions of the state less than the whole or to the property and person of a limited portion of the state as distinguished from a law which operates generally throughout the state.
A local law must be consistent with any general law on the same subject. It may depend on the circumstances of their culture and geography.
Purpose of Local Law– Councils use local laws to respond to issues and community needs within a municipality. These laws complement responsibilities and powers under state and federal law where appropriate councils may introduce local laws or by laws to exercise these power. This laws are often adopted to protect public health, amenity and safety in a municipality
If any local laws passed by a council it designs to ensure that the actions of an individual or group do not have an adverse impact on the rest of the community and it only applies within the municipality in which they are passed through.
Process for a council to create a new law is as following-
- If a council needs to make a new local law it must advertise this publicly and consider any sub missions before implementing the law. It should not duplicate or contradict a federal or state law.
- The law once passed it has 10 years life if it doesn’t revoke sooner or renew for remain valid. It ensures that local laws remain suitable to the purpose for which they were made originally made.
Public Law– Public law is that part of law which governs relationships between legal person and a government, between different institutions within a state between different branches of government, It comprises constitutional law, administrative law, tax law and procedural law. The law governing the conduct of public bodies is known as Public Law. Principles of public law means that public bodies act lawfully, fairly, rationally and compatible with the human rights by their actions. These include as following.
- Complaining using public bodies through complaints procedures.
- Asking a public body to review its decision.
- Exercising rights of appeal to a tribunal.
- Though a judicial review process.
- Public Law affects several parts of our day to day lives which includes immigration, health, education and the environment. The role of Public Law is to regulate the relationship between the state and individual. It refers to the special powers of the state to run the country, its power to enforce apply, implement, repeal and amend the law. It also refers to as constitutional and administrative law.
The main sections of the Public Law is a following –
- Constitutional Fundaments- This modules touch upon the roles and conventions before exploring what a constitution is providing a comprehensive comparison between a written and unwritten constitution.
- Parliamentary Sovereignty- This module will examine into the history of parliamentary sovereignty before investigating its sources and theories.
- The rule of Law- The main aspects of the conception of this rule is to consider the history of the conception of the rul.
- Legislative Functions- The aim of this module is to clarify legislative functions, and the role for the legislature.
- The Human Rights Act- This Act addresses what human rights are and how the Human Rights Act interlink.
- Government and Accountability- It refers the executive and public law powers, mechanisms for accountability and parliamentary scrutiny of government.
- Administrative Justice- This module analyses the System of tribunals and the role of overseers.
- The Royal Prerogative- This module inspects the relationship between the monarch and Parliament.
Special Law– A law that applies to a particular place or especially to aparticular member or members of a class of person or things in the same situation bu not the entire class and if the classification made is arbitrary or without a reasonable or legitimate justification.
In other words special laws are Acts that are framed by the state government for specific issues. As per the Section 29 in the Limitation Act 1963 this special law prescribes for any suit appeal or application a period of limitation different from the period prescribed.
Special Law has a vital history in India fighting social evils through legislation such as preventing of child marriage, preventing “Sati Pratha”. This law provide an important way for social reforms by social activists.